Below are the phases of STLC:
- Requirements phase
- Planning Phase
- Analysis phase
- Design Phase
- Implementation Phase
- Execution Phase
- Conclusion Phase
- Closure Phase
1. Requirement Phase:
During this phase of STLC, analyze and study the requirements. Have brain storming sessions with other teams and try to find out whether the requirements are testable or not. This phase helps to identify the scope of the testing. If any feature is not testable, communicate it during this phase so that the mitigation strategy can be planned.
2. Planning Phase:
In practical scenarios, Test planning is the first step of the testing process. In this phase we identify the activities and resources which would help to meet the testing objectives. During planning we also try to identify the metrics, the method of gathering and tracking those metrics.
On what basis the planning is done? Only requirements?
The answer is NO. Requirements do form one of the bases but there are 2 other very important factors which influence test planning. These are:
– Test strategy of the organization.
– Risk analysis / Risk Management and mitigation.
3. Analysis Phase:
This STLC phase defines “WHAT” to be tested. We basically identify the test conditions through the requirements document, product risks and other test basis. The test condition should be traceable back to the requirement. There are various factors which effect the identification of test conditions:
– Levels and depth of testing
– Complexity of the product
– Product and project risks
– Software development life cycle involved.
– Test management
– Skills and knowledge of the team.
– Availability of the stakeholders.
We should try to write down the test conditions in a detailed way. For example, for an e-commerce web application, you can have a test condition as “User should be able to make a payment”. Or you can detail it out by saying “User should be able to make payment through NEFT, debit card and credit card”. The most important advantage of writing the detailed test condition is that it increases the test coverage, since the test cases will be written on the basis of the test condition, these details will trigger to write more detailed test cases which will eventually increase the coverage. Also identify the exit criteria of the testing, i.e determine some conditions when you will stop the testing.
This phase defines “HOW” to test. This phase involves the following tasks:
– Detail the test condition. Break down the test conditions into multiple sub conditions to increase coverage.
– Identify and get the test data
– Identify and set up the test environment.
– Create the requirement traceability metrics
– Create the test coverage metrics.
The major task in this STLC phase is of creation of the detailed test cases. Prioritize the test cases also identify which test case will become part of the regression suite. Before finalizing the test case, It is important to carry out the review to ensure the correctness of the test cases. Also don’t forget to take the sign off of the test cases before actual execution starts. If your project involves automation, identify the candidate test cases for automation and proceed for scripting the test cases. Don’t forget to review them!
As the name suggests, this is the Software Testing Life Cycle phase where the actual execution takes place. But before you start your execution, make sure that your entry criterion is met. Execute the test cases, log defects in case of any discrepancy. Simultaneously fill your traceability metrics to track your progress.
This STLC phase concentrates on the exit criteria and reporting. Depending on your project and stakeholders choice, you can decide on reporting whether you want to send out a daily report of weekly report etc. There are different types of reports ( DSR – Daily status report, WSR – Weekly status reports) which you can send, but the important point is, the content of the report changes and depends upon whom you are sending your reports. If Project managers belong to testing background then they are more interested in the technical aspect of the project, so include the technical things in your report ( number of test cases passed, failed, defects raised, severity 1 defects etc.). But if you are reporting to upper stakeholders, they might not be interested in the technical things so report them about the risks that have been mitigated through the testing.
Tasks for the closure activities include the following:
– Check for the completion of the test. Whether all the test cases are executed or mitigated deliberately. Check there are no severity 1 defects opened.
– Do lessons learnt meeting and create lessons learnt document.( Include what went well, where are the scope of improvements and what can be improved)